A collection of technical articles for customers wishing to understand more of the science behind our products.

The articles listed here have either been written by our own nutritionist team or taken from existing works carried out by suitably qualified individuals or organisations.  


The aim of the Knowledge Base is to provide a level of information that satisfies customers requiring an in-depth explanation of the nutritional elements and compositions of all our feedingstuffs.

Article List

  • Leaky Gut

    • Added May 2020​

    • Extract... (Leaky gut, known as increased intestinal permeability, is regarded as a separate phenomenon to “Leaky Gut Syndrome”. Although this is perceived as being a difference in definition – in that there is no scientifically recognised syndrome – the condition of IIP can have ramifications.)

  • Iron: its Nutritional Availability and Impact on Horses

    • Added May 2020

    • Extract... (So when it comes down to it, what can the horse utilise, and why is iron deficiency not a major problem? Firstly it is down to the efficiency of iron metabolism within the horse which is very good at keeping iron in the body.)​​​

  • ​The Role of Nutrition in Immunity

    • Added April 2020

    • Extract... (Whether there is an immune challenge, allergic response, or parasitic challenge (fleas, ticks, worms), the overall approach to supporting inherent defence mechanisms is a multifunctional approach.)​​

  • Curcumin & Piperine

    • Added January 2020

    • Extract... (Curcumin influences many processes involved in the support and control of oxidative, inflammatory and immune processes.)

  • Joint Supplements: Potential for Harm

    • Added January 2020

    • Extract... (​Joint supplements can be extremely variable in their make-up. They can be a combination of NSAID, glycosaminoglycans, essential oils, minerals and antioxidants.)


  • Allergy & The Microbiome

    • Added July 2019

    • Extract... (​Digestive Aid contains the prebiotics FOS, GOS, MOS and glucans, whIch may explain the observed effects i0n ameliorating food borne allergies.)

  • PSSM and Muscle Maintenance

    • Added June 2019​

    • Extract... (Muscle atrophy, where protein breakdown is faster than synthesis, as previously described (Knowledge Base – Muscle Maintenance), releases inflammatory and oxidative factors, such as creatine kinase, phagocytes and free amino acids, some of which are not immediately recycled...)

  • Glutamic Acid

    • Added May 2019​

    • Extract... (Described under EU register of feed additives, glutamic acid, or glutamate, is defined as a natural or corresponding synthetic chemically defined flavouring, alongside is its salt monosodium glutamate. However, glutamic acid has many more roles...)

  • Tocotrienols: The Other Vitamin E family​

    • Added March 2019

    • Extract... (Vitamin E is a generic term frequently used to group together eight different molecules, namely: α-, β-, ϒ- and δ- tocopherol (T) and the corresponding tocotrienols (TE). They are distinguished by their overall shape and bonding...)

  • Mineral Absorption Mechanisms

    • Added January 2019

    • Extract... (However, there are other routes of absorption, both in terms of where, and how. Although the majority of mineral/t.e. absorption occurs in the small intestine, significant amounts can be absorbed across the rumen/forward fermentation chambers, smaller amounts in the large intestine....)

  • MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) in Joint Health

    • Added January 2019

    • Extract... (MSM is a source of sulphur, which helps to form cross links with other molecules that maintain the strength and integrity of connective tissues. It is also essential for the manufacture of collagen. It does, however, have properties, including interactions with the inflammatory cycle, oxidation and immunomodulation....)​​

  • Collagen

    • Added December 2018​

    • Extract...(Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content...)

  • Probiotics and Prebiotics Part 2

    • Added October 2018​

    • Extract...(A prebiotic is defined as food ingredients that induce the growth or activity of beneficial microorganisms. As such they need to fulfil certain criteria: non-digestible and resistant to breakdown by stomach acid and enzymes in the human gastrointestinal tract; selectively fermented by intestinal microorganisms; selectively target and stimulate the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria.....)

  • Feeding Wheat By-Products to Horses

    • Added July 2018​

    • Extract...(There is a marketing trend that declares a ration that is cereal grain free/whole soya free/Lucerne free, or free from another material that some people may perceive as a problem in equine nutrition. In some cases, a close inspection shows that a by-product of those materials is present. .....)


  • Probiotics and Prebiotics Part 1

    • Added May 2018​

    • Extract...(There is much confusion over the definitions, functions and modes of action of both pro- and pre- biotics.  Ultimately, they play a role in adjusting, or maintaining, the natural microbial populations in gastrointestinal tract; this may have implications on gut health, nutrient availability and digestion and the immunological status of the host animal. .....)

  • Albumin - The Importance of quality protein in animal feed

    • Added July 2017​

    • Extract...(Albumin is the main circulating protein in the body; it accounts for ~ 50% of plasma protein. It is a relatively small molecule being a single chain of 585 amino acids. It contains 35 cysteine molecules, 34 of which pair off with disulphide bonds which stabilise the shape into a globular, heart-shaped conformation. .....)

  • Vitamin D in animal health

    • Added June 2017​

    • Extract...(Vitamin D3, cholecalciferol, is hydroxylated in the liver to Calcidiol – 25(OH)D, and it is this form that is bound with D Binding Protein (DBP). The activated DBP can bind to Vitamin D Receptors (VDR), which are present in the nuclei and plasma of all cells. Binding to the genome – DNA material – is the pathway .....)

  • Glucosamine and Chondroitin: What is it and what does it do?

    • Added June 2017​

    • Extract...(There are many joint supplements on the market, for both humans and companion animals. Products designed for helping maintain the joints are probably the single most popular supplement although they are used for a variety of reasons; from easing stiffness up to “treating” osteoarthritis....)

  • Muscle Maintenance

    • Added Mar 2017​

    • Extract...(When striated muscle undergoes high levels of work there is physical damage. Strength conditioning results in an increase in muscle size, which is largely the result of increased contractile proteins. Muscle contraction – concentric contraction – matches muscle elongation in a paired system...)

  • Hempseed Meal

    • Added Mar 2017​

    • Extract...(Earlier articles have concentrated on the role of hemp oil, both as a component of the Oatinol Delivery System and its unique fatty acid profile supplying a beneficial ω-6:ω-3 ratio as well as significant quantities of stearidonic acid (C18:4 ω-3 - SDA) and ϒ-linolenic acid. These characteristics have a...)

  • The Benefits of Hemp Oil vs Linseed Oil

    • Added Feb 2017​

    • Extract...(There has been much written about the benefits of Omega fatty acids, in particular ω-3 and ω-6. These have been labelled anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory as well as heart healthy; they also have roles in bone metabolism and other aspects of metabolism, including immune and allergenic responses...)

  • Omega Oils - What do they really mean?

    • Added Nov 2016​

    • Extract...(Omega oils first appeared in the national consciousness as unsaturated fats, graduated into “heart healthy” fats, and now omega-3 or 6.   But what are they?  Where do they come from and how do they work?...)

  • Vitamin D and Alpacas.  Injections, Paste or Other?

    • Added Oct 2016​

    • Extract...(Rickets has been seen as being a problem, mainly in cria, but also in older animals.  It has been put down to the fact that during winter, vitamin D generation is reduced in temperate parts of the world because of lower intensity light and shorter days than would be experienced in native...)

  • The Impact of Starch and Sugar in Equine Diets

    • Added Sep 2016​

    • Extract...(Not so long ago, feeding starch was seen to be perfectly acceptable, especially in the form of oats.  Over recent years the “expert” opinion is that starch and sugar is not to be fed and fibre is the way to go...)

  • The Role of Nutricines in Health and Total Nutrition

    • Added Aug 2016

    • Extract...(Feed is more than a supply of nutrients. It is also inextricably linked to disease avoidance and health maintenance. Feed is an enormous collection of different molecules which can be classified into two major groups; nutrients and nutricines...)

  • The Oatinol Delivery System

    • Added Aug 2016​

    • Extract...(The gastro-intestinal tract is an organ whose function is to process food into biochemical compounds that can be metabolized to produce energy, growth and support all life processes. It uses various methods, from mechanical (chewing) to chemical (enzymatic breakdown) to symbiotic...)

  • Beta-Glucans.  What do they do?

    • Added Jul 2016​​​

    • Extract...(Biochemically the name of a product tends to describe it. A product ending in ‘ans’ means it consists of a limited number of the same sugar molecule (in this case glucose) in some form of chain which may or may not be soluble. Sugar molecules can have isomers – that is, versions where the ...)

  • Ulceration of the Horses' Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    • Added Jun 2016​​

    • Extract...(It’s thought that 25-50% of foals and 60-90% of performance horses have ulcers. It is likely, due to the probably causes of ulceration, that many leisure horses also suffer from the condition. In its worst case ulceration can also occur in the horse’s gullet and further down the intestine from the...)

Knowledge Base

Understand more about the nutritional elements and composition of our products.

+44 (0)1225 708482


Do you have a question you would like answered?

The list of articles will be added to on a regular basis, but if you have a technical or complex question relating to any area of feed or animal nutrition, we invite you to forward the question fror review using the contact box below.

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Instagram

Follow Us

GWF Nutrition Limited © 2019 - E&OE.

Complies with the Universal Feed Assurance Scheme - Compound Feed Code of Practice.  Registration no.: 81.  Registered in England no. 01042610  Establishment no. GB330E368.  GWF Nutrition, GWF Nutrition.com, Equilibra, The Aid Range, Oatinol and Age-ility are Registered Trade Marks ® of GWF Nutrition Limited.